Clinical experience suggests that lipodystrophy (LD) can have a profound impact on quality of life (QOL) and medication adherence (MA). Thus, a hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of LD and its association with QOL and MA. A total of 405 participants were included in the study. The majority of participants were female (64.5%), with a mean age of 35.69 years (SD = 9.63 years). The prevalence of LD was 30.9%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that type of regimen initially used is an independent predictor of severity of LD (adjusted odds ratio, 44.16; 95% confidence interval, 10.56-184.59; P = .001). Quality of life was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life short form instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), and medication adherence was assessed by self-report. The mean WHOQOL-BREF score of the participants was 53.48; the highest mean value was in the domain of physical health (68.56) and the lowest was in the social relationships domain (47.09). The majority of the patients scored lower (ie, in the lowest 5 deciles) in the domains of psychological health, social relationships, and environment compared with physical health. No differences in the WHOQOL-BREF measurements were observed, except in the environment domain, between patients with moderate LD and severe LD (P = .02). The LD severity was not associated with self-reported MA (P = .42). With the exception of the psychological health domain (P = .044), participants’ WHOQOL-BREF scores were not significantly associated with MA. Lipodystrophy was not associated with QOL or MA. The prevalence of LD in the present study was within the range of previous reports; however, the mean WHOQOL-BREF score of Ethiopian patients in this study is lower compared with reports from developed countries.
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