Liquid biopsy in diagnosis and prognosis of non-metastatic prostate cancer

Alexey S. Rzhevskiy*, Alina Y. Kapitannikova, Denis V. Butnaru, Evgeniy V. Shpot, Simon A. Joosse, Andrei V. Zvyagin, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
73 Downloads (Pure)


Currently, sensitive and specific methods for the detection and prognosis of early stage PCa are lacking. To establish the diagnosis and further identify an appropriate treatment strategy, prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test followed by tissue biopsy have to be performed. The combination of tests is justified by the lack of a highly sensitive, specific, and safe single test. Tissue biopsy is specific but invasive and may have severe side effects, and therefore is inappropriate for screening of the disease. At the same time, the PSA blood test, which is conventionally used for PCa screening, has low specificity and may be elevated in the case of noncancerous prostate tumors and inflammatory conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. Thus, diverse techniques of liquid biopsy have been investigated to supplement or replace the existing tests of prostate cancer early diagnosis and prognostics. Here, we provide a review on the advances in diagnosis and prognostics of non-metastatic prostate cancer by means of various biomarkers extracted via liquid biopsy, including circulating tumor cells, exosomal miRNAs, and circulating DNAs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3115
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • cfDNA
  • circulating tumor cells
  • ctDNA
  • exosomes
  • liquid biopsy
  • miRNA
  • prostate cancer


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