The Neoproterozoic Katangan Supergroup comprises a thick sedimentary rock succession subdivided into the Roan, Nguba, and Kundelungu Groups, from bottom to top. Deposition of both Nguba and Kundelungu Groups began with diamictites, the Mwale/Grand Conglomérat and Kyandamu/Petit Conglomérat Formations, respectively, correlated with the 750 Ma Sturtian and (supposedly) 620 Ma Marinoan/Varanger glacial events. The Kaponda, Kakontwe, Kipushi and Lusele Formations are interpreted as cap-carbonates overlying the diamictites. Petrographical features of the Nguba and Kundelungu siliciclastic rocks indicate a proximal facies in the northern areas and a basin open to the south. The carbonate deposits increase southward in the Nguba basin. In the southern region, the Kyandamu Formation contains clasts from the underlying rocks, indicating an exhumation and erosion of these rocks to the south of the basin. It is inferred that this formation deposited in a foreland basin, dating the inversion from extensional to compressional tectonics, and the northward thrusting. Sampwe and Biano sedimentary rocks were deposited in the northernmost foreland basin at the end of the thrusting. The Zn-Pb-Cu and Cu-Ag-Au epigenetic, hypogene deposits occurring in Nguba carbonates and Kundelungu clastic rocks probably originate from hydrothermal resetting and remobilization of pre-existing stratiform base metal mineralisations in the Roan Group.