Loops and strings in a superconducting lattice gauge simulator

G. K. Brennen, G. Pupillo, E. Rico, T. M. Stace, D. Vodola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


We propose an architecture for an analog quantum simulator of electromagnetism in 2+1 dimensions, based on an array of superconducting fluxonium devices. The encoding is in the integer (spin-1) representation of the quantum link model formulation of compact U(1) lattice gauge theory. We show how to engineer Gauss' law via an ancilla mediated gadget construction, and how to tune between the strongly coupled and intermediately coupled regimes. The witnesses to the existence of the predicted confining phase of the model are provided by nonlocal order parameters from Wilson loops and disorder parameters from 't Hooft strings. We show how to construct such operators in this model and how to measure them nondestructively via dispersive coupling of the fluxonium islands to a microwave cavity mode. Numerical evidence is found for the existence of the confined phase in the ground state of the simulation Hamiltonian on a ladder geometry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number240504
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 7 Dec 2016


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