A low-temperature solution-based process for depositing silver nanowire (AgNW) networks for use as transparent conductive top electrode is demonstrated. These AgNWs when applied to Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 solar cells outperformed indium tin oxide as the top electrode. Thinner nanowires allow the use of lower temperatures during processing, while longer wires allow lowered sheet resistance for the same surface coverage of NWs, enhancing the transmittance/conductance trade-off. Conductive atomic force microscopy and percolation theory were used to study the quality of the NW network at the microscale. Our optimized network yielded a sheet resistance of 18 Ω/□ and ∼95% transmission across the entire wavelength range of interest for a deposition temperature as low as of 60 °C. Our results show that AgNWs can be used for low-temperature cell fabrication using cheap solution-based processes that could also be promising for other solar cells constrained to low processing temperatures such as organic and perovskite solar cells.
- silver nanowire
- transparent conductive layer
- low-temperature process
- conductive atomic force microscopy
- solar cell