The neurohypophysial hormones contained in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri have been investigated. Mesotocin was identified by coelution with the synthetic peptide in high-pressure liquid chromatography, by Edman amino acid sequencing, by mass spectrometry, by C-terminal sequencing through carboxypeptidase Y, and cleavage with prolyl endopeptidase. Vasotocin, if present, would be in very small amounts and hydrins were not detected. Oxytocin appears absent. Although Neoceratodus and Protopterus have different habitats, the former being permanently aquatic, the latter burrowing during estivation, the proportions of neurohypophysial hormones stored in neurohypophysis were roughly similar in the two species and not apparently affected by environmental conditions.