Magmatic fluids in the Fen carbonatite complex, S.E. Norway - Evidence of mid-crustal fractionation from solid and fluid inclusions in apatite

Tom Andersen*

*Corresponding author for this work

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    60 Citations (Scopus)


    Three different types of carbonatite magma may be recognized in the Cambrian Fen complex, S.E. Norway: (1) Peralkaline calcite carbonatite magma derived from ijolitic magma; (2) Alkaline magnesian calcite carbonatite magma which yielded biotite-amphibole søvite and dolomite carbonatite; and (3) ferrocarbonatite liquids, related to (2) and/or to alkaline lamprophyre magma (damjernite). Apatite formed during the pre-emplacement evolution of (2) contains inclusions of calcite and dolomite, devitrified mafic silicate glass and aqueous fluid. All of these inclusions have a magmatic origin, and were trapped during a mid-crustal fractionation event (P≥4 kbars, T≥625° C), where apatite and carbonates precipitated from a carbonatite magma which coexisted with a mafic silicate melt. The fluid inclusions contain water, dissolved ionic species (mainly NaCl, with minor polyvalent metal salts) and in some cases CO2. Two main groups of fluid inclusions are recognized: Type A: CO2-bearing inclusions, of approximate molar composition H2O88-90 CO27-5 NaCl5 (d=0.85-0.87 g/ cm3). Type B: CO2-free aqueous inclusions with salinities from 1 to 24 wt% NaCleq and densities betwen 0.7 and 1.0 g/cm3. More strongly saline type B inclusions (salinity ca. 35wt%, d=1.0 to 1.1 g/cm3) contain solid halite at room temperature and occur in overgrowths on apatite. Type A inclusions probably contain the most primitive fluid, from which type B fluids have evolved during fractionation of the magmatic system. Type B inclusions define a continuous trend from low towards higher salinities and densities and formed as a result of cooling and partitioning of alkali chloride components in the carbonatite system into the fluid phase. Available petrological data on the carbonatites show that the fluid evolution in the Fen complex leads from a regime dominated by juvenile CO2 + H2O fluids during the magmatic stage, to groundwater-derived aqueous fluids during post-magmatic reequilibration.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)491-503
    Number of pages13
    JournalContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 1986


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