Manifold microchannel heat sinks: Isothermal analysis

David Copeland*, Masud Behnia, Wataru Nakayama

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference paperpeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)


Numerical analyses of manifold microchannel (MMC) heat sinks were performed. The MMC differs from a traditional microchannel heat sink in that the flow length is greatly reduced to a small fraction of the total length of the heat sink. Alternating inlet and outlet channels guide the coolant to and from the microchannels. A silicon heat sink cooled by fluorocarbon liquid was studied. The repetitive nature of the manifold and microchannels results in many planes of symmetry. The thermal and fluid characteristics of a MMC assembly can modeled by a "unit cell" bounded by the centerlines of the manifold inlet and outlet channels and by those of the microchannels and heat sink walls. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite element models of single manifold microchannels were constructed and used to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer. Conjugate analysis suggested that an isothermal model would produce suitably accurate results. In addition to coolant flow rate, channel length, width, and depth were varied. Regions of high heat transfer were found near the inlet. At higher inlet velocities, secondary maxima in heat transfer were seen at the base of the microchannel below the inlet, and at the top of the microchannel near the exit. The flow was found to accelerate to a greater extent than predicted by rectangular duct analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96-102
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Part A
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1997
Externally publishedYes
Event1996 5th Intersociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena in Electronic Systems - Orlando, FL, USA
Duration: 29 May 19961 Jun 1996


  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Conjugate heat transfer
  • Finite element analysis
  • Liquid cooling
  • Microchannel heat sink


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