Tumor vasculature is characterized by aberrant structure and function, resulting in immune suppressive profiles of tumor microenvironment through limiting immune cell infiltration into tumors, endogenous immune surveillance and immune cell function. Vascular normalization as a novel therapeutic strategy tends to prune some of the immature blood vessels and fortify the structure and function of the remaining vessels, thus improving immune stimulation and the efficacy of immunotherapy. Interestingly, the presence of "immune‒vascular crosstalk" enables the formation of a positive feedback loop between vascular normalization and immune reprogramming, providing the possibility to develop new cancer therapeutic strategies. The applications of nanomedicine in vascular-targeting therapy in cancer have gained increasing attention due to its specific physical and chemical properties. Here, we reviewed the recent advances of effective routes, especially nanomedicine, for normalizing tumor vasculature. We also summarized the development of enhancing nanoparticle-based anticancer drug delivery via the employment of transcytosis and mimicking immune cell extravasation. This review explores the potential to optimize nanomedicine-based therapeutic strategies as an alternative option for cancer treatment.
Bibliographical noteCopyright the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences 2020. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.
- Immune cells
- Immune‒vascular crosstalk
- Tumor microenvironment
- Vascular normalization