Clinopyroxenes separated from garnetiferous ultramafic rocks in the core zone of the Norwegian Caledonides have rubidium concentrations of 0.008 to 0.064 ppm, strontium concentrations of 23.5 to 421 ppm, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7011 to 0.7029. The very low Rb/Sr ratios of the clinopyroxenes (less than 0.0004) suggest that their 87Sr/86Sr values have not varied significantly over geologic time and may approximate the initial 87Sr/86Sr of the eclogite-facies ultramafic mineral assemblages at their time of formation. The ultramafic rocks occur in a basement complex that yields Rb-Sr whole-rock and U-Pb zircon ages of about 1800 m.y. Garnetiferous ultramafic rocks are apparently lacking in younger (Sveconorwegian or Caledonian) sialic sequences, raising the possibility that the eclogite-facies metamorphism may have occurred at least 1800 m.y. ago. The Rb/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the clinopyroxenes are as predicted for the ancient upper mantle under most evolutionary models. However, the data do not preclude the possibility that the eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred in the crust. The garnetiferous ultramafic rocks are generally enclosed by large volumes of dunite which could have shielded the eclogite-facies assemblages from contamination by fluids from the country rock during metamorphism.