Measurement invariance of a body dysmorphic disorder symptom questionnaire across sex

the Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent version

Sophie C. Schneider, Andrew J. Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia M. Turner, Jennifer L. Hudson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


Measures of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms have received little psychometric evaluation in adolescent samples. This study aimed to examine cross-sex measurement invariance in the Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent version (BIQ-C) to establish whether observed sex differences in total scores may be meaningful or due to differences in measurement properties. A sample of 3,057 Australian high school students completed the initial screening item of the measure (63.2% male, Mage = 14.58 years, SD = 1.37, range = 12-18 years). Of these participants, 1,512 (49.5%) reported appearance concerns and thus completed the full measure. Partial scalar measurement invariance was established among a revised two-factor, 9-item version of the BIQ-C (BIQ-C-9). Females reported significantly greater latent factor variance, higher BIQ-C-9 total and factor scores, and higher scores on most individual BIQ-C-9 items. The measure can be used with caution to compare body dysmorphic disorder symptoms between male and female adolescents, though sex-specific cutoff scores should be used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1026-1035
Number of pages10
Issue number8
Early online date19 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


  • body dysmorphic disorder
  • measurement invariance
  • sex differences
  • adolescent
  • screening

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