Mechanism for enhanced diffusivity in the deep-sea perpetual salt fountain

Xinrong Zhang*, Shigenao Maruyama, Koutaro Tsubaki, Seigo Sakai, Masud Behnia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The mechanism of enhanced diffusivity occurring in the deep-sea perpetual salt fountain has been investigated experimentally and numerically. Some factors which possibly contribute to the enhanced diffusivity were found to be the pipe oscillation with ocean waves and its baffled wall surface. Field experiments in the ocean (Onagawa Bay of Miyagi, Japan) and numerical simulations were performed to study and confirm the dynamics of the flow and heat transport with enhanced diffusivity occurring in upwelling deep-sea water. The agreement between the field experimental data and the numerical solutions of an oscillating-wall boundary condition imposed on the baffled pipe is encouraging, and it indicates the baffled pipe surface subject to the oscillatory motion leads to the enhanced diffusivity. The buoyancy force and then upwelling velocity can be greatly increased by the enhanced diffusivity. The dominant mechanism is the occurrence of complicated vortices and vortex shedding leading to efficient mixing and enhanced diffusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-142
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Oceanography
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Deep water
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Perpetual salt fountain
  • Tracer
  • Turbulent diffusion
  • Upwelling


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