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The programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein has emerged as a predictive cancer biomarker and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade-based cancer immunotherapies. Current technologies for the detection of protein-based biomarkers, including the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have limitations such as low sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) in addition to degradation of antibodies in exposure to environmental changes such as temperature and pH. To address these issues, we have proposed a metal-organic framework (MOF)-based ELISA for the detection of the PD-L1. A protective coating based on Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework 8 (ZIF-8) MOF thin film and polydopamine-polyethylenimine (PDA-PEI) was introduced on an ELISA plate for the improvement of antibody immobilization. Sensitivity and LOD of the resulting platform were compared with a conventional ELISA kit, and the bioactivity of the antibody in the proposed immunoassay was investigated in response to various pH and temperature values. The LOD and sensitivity of the MOF-based PD-L1 ELISA were 225 and 15.12 times higher, respectively, compared with those of the commercial ELISA kit. The antibody@ZIF-8/PDA-PEI was stable up to 55 °C and the pH range 5-10. The proposed platform can provide sensitive detection for target proteins, in addition to being resistant to elevated temperature and pH. The proposed MOF-based ELISA has significant potential for the clinical and diagnostic studies.
- metal−organic framework
- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
- limit of detection
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