Microbial genome analyses: Comparative transport capabilities in eighteen prokaryotes

Ian T. Paulsen*, Lily Nguyen, Marek K. Sliwinski, Ralf Rabus, Milton H. Saier

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

232 Citations (Scopus)


Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of solute transport systems encoded within the completely sequenced genomes of 18 prokaryotic organisms. These organisms include four Gram-positive bacteria, seven Gram-negative bacteria, two spirochetes, one cyanobacterium and four archaea. Membrane proteins are analyzed in terms of putative membrane topology, and the recognized transport systems are classified into 76 families, including four families of channel proteins, four families of primary carriers, 54 families of secondary carriers, six families of group translocators, and eight unclassified families. These families are analyzed in terms of the paralogous and orthologous relationships of their protein members, the substrate specificities of their constituent transporters and their distributions in each of the 18 organisms studied. The families vary from large superfamilies with hundreds of represented members, to small families with only one or a few members. The mode of transport generally correlates with the primary mechanism of energy generation, and the numbers of secondary transporters relative to primary transporters are roughly proportional to the total numbers of primary H+ and Na+ pumps in the cell. The phosphotransferase system is less prevalent in the analyzed bacteria than previously thought (only six of 14 bacteria transport sugars via this system) and is completely lacking in archaea and eukaryotes. Escherichia coli is shown to be exceptionally broad in its transport capabilities and therefore, at a membrane transport level, does not appear representative of the bacteria thus far sequenced. Archaea and spirochetes exhibit fewer proteins with multiple transmembrane segments and fewer net transporters than most bacteria. These results provide insight into the relevance of transport to the overall physiology of prokaryotes. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-100
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of molecular biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Archaea
  • Bacteria
  • Genomics
  • Phylogeny
  • Transporters


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