Microwave sensors offer attractive solutions to highly sensitive, rapid, and non-invasive measurements. Microfluidic technology has exquisite advantages of small size (manipulation of nanoliter sample volumes), low cost, and fast detection time. By integrating a microwave sensor with microfluidic technology, a sensitive, reproducible, and portable detection system can be constructed. This review focuses on microwave microfluidic biosensors for various biological and medical applications, including the liquid characterization, heating and temperature measurement, cell analysis, biomolecule and bacteria detection. We present several recent advances in each application field of the developed biosensors. Finally, we put forward the perspectives on the future directions and propose the strategies to cope with the challenging issues and problems relating to the development of next-generation microwave microfluidic sensors.
- Index terms—microfluidics technology
- Microwave biosensors
- Permittivity determination techniques
- Broadband sensors