The phenotypic differentiation of systemic macrophages that have infiltrated the central nervous system, pericytes, perivascular macrophages, and the "real" resident microglial cells is a major immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical concern for all users of cultures of brain cells and brain sections. It is not only important in assessing the purity of cell cultures; it is also of fundamental importance in the assessment of the pathogenetic significance of perivascular inflammatory phenomena within the brain. The lack of a single membranous and/or biochemical marker allowing conclusive identification of these cells is still a major problem in neurobiology. This review briefly discusses the functions of these cells and catalogs a large number of membranous and biochemical markers, which can assist in the identification of these cells.
- Monocyte cells