The Neoproterozoic (∼ 820 Ma) Aries micaceous kimberlite intrudes the central Kimberley Basin, northern Western Australia, and has yielded a suite of 27 serpentinised ultramafic xenoliths, including spinel-bearing and rare, metasomatised, phlogopite-biotite and rutile-bearing types, along with minor granite xenoliths. Proton-microprobe trace-element analysis of pyrope and chromian spinel grains derived from heavy mineral concentrates from the kimberlite has been used to define a ∼ 35-40 mW/m 2 Proterozoic geotherm for the central Kimberley Craton. Lherzolitic chromian pyrope highly depleted in Zr and Y, and Cr-rich magnesiochromite xenocrysts (class 1), probably were derived from depleted garnet peridotite mantle at ∼ 150 km depth. Sampling of shallower levels of the lithospheric mantle by kimberlite magmas in the north and north-extension lobes entrained high-Fe chromite xenocrysts (class 2), and aluminous spinel-bearing xenoliths, where both spinel compositions are anomalously Fe-rich for spinels from mantle xenoliths. This Fe-enrichment may have resulted from Fe-Mg exchange with olivine during slow cooling of the peridotite host rocks. Fine exsolution rods of aluminous spinel in diopside and zircon in rutile grains in spinel- and rutile-bearing serpentinised ultramafic xenoliths, respectively, suggest nearly isobaric cooling of host rocks in the lithospheric mantle, and indicate that at least some aluminous spinel in spinel-facies peridotites formed through exsolution from chromian diopside. Fe-Ti-rich metasomatism in the spinel-facies Kimberley mantle probably produced high-Ti phlogopite-biotite + rutile and Ti, V, Zn, Ni-enriched aluminous spinel ± ilmenite associations in several ultramafic xenoliths. U-Pb SHRIMP 207Pb/ 206Pb zircon ages for one granite (1851 ± 10 Ma) and two serpentinised ultramafic xenoliths (1845 ± 30 Ma; 1861 ± 31 Ma) indicate that the granitic basement and lower crust beneath the central Kimberley Basin are at least Palaeoproterozoic in age. However, Hf-isotope analyses of the zircons in the ultramafic xenoliths suggest that the underlying lithospheric mantle is at least late Archean in age.