Minimizing fouling at hydrogenated conical-tip carbon electrodes during dopamine detection in vivo

Shaneel Chandra, Anthony D. Miller, Avi Bendavid, Philip J. Martin, Danny K Y Wong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, physically small conical-tip carbon electrodes (∼2-5 μm diameter and ∼4 μm axial length) were hydrogenated to develop a probe capable of withstanding fouling during dopamine detection in vivo. Upon hydrogenation, the resultant hydrophobic sp3 carbon surface deters adsorption of amphiphilic lipids, proteins, and peptides present in extracellular fluid and hence minimizes electrode fouling. These hydrogenated carbon electrodes showed a 35% decrease in sensitivity but little change in the limit of detection for dopamine over a 7-day incubation in a synthetic laboratory solution containing 1.0% (v/v) caproic acid (a lipid), 0.1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin and 0.01% (w/v) cytochrome C (both are proteins), and 0.002% (w/v) human fibrinopeptide B (a peptide). Subsequently, during dopamine detection in vivo, over 70% of the dopamine oxidation current remained after the first 30 min of a 60-min experiment, and at least 50% remained over the next half-period at the hydrogenated carbon electrodes. On the basis of these results, an initial average electrode surface fouling rate of 1.2% min -1 was estimated, which gradually declined to 0.7% min-1. These results support minimal fouling at hydrogenated carbon electrodes applied to dopamine detection in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2443-2450
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2014


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