Layered low-dimensional perovskite structures employing bulky organic ammonium cations have shown significant improvement on stability but poorer performance generally compared to their 3D counterparts. Here, a mixed passivation (MP) treatment is reported that uses a mixture of bulky organic ammonium iodide (iso-butylammonium iodide, iBAI) and formammidinium iodide (FAI), enhancing both power conversion efficiency and stability. Through a combination of inactivation of the interfacial trap sites, characterized by photoluminescence measurement, and formation of an interfacial energetic barrier by which ionic transport is reduced, demonstrated by Kelvin probe force microscopy, MP treatment of the perovskite/hole transport layer interface significantly suppresses photocurrent hysteresis. Using this MP treatment, the champion mixed-halide perovskite cell achieves a reverse scan and stabilized power conversion efficiency of 21.7%. Without encapsulation, the devices show excellent moisture stability, sustaining over 87% of the original performance after 38 d storage in ambient environment under 75 ± 20% relative humidity. This work shows that FAI/iBAI, is a new and promising material combination for passivating perovskite/selective-contact interfaces.
- 2D perovskite
- mixed-cation perovskite solar cells