Models of Reading Aloud: Dual-Route and Parallel-Distributed-Processing Approaches

Max Coltheart*, Brent Curtis, Paul Atkins, Michael Haller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1127 Citations (Scopus)


It has often been argued that various facts about skilled reading aloud cannot be explained by any model unless that model possesses a dual-route architecture (lexical and nonlexical routes from print to speech). This broad claim has been challenged by Seidenberg and McClelland (1989, 1990). Their model has but a single route from print to speech, yet, they contend, it can account form major facts about reading that have hitherto been claimed to require a dual-route architecture. The authors identify 6 of these major facts about reading. The 1-route model proposed by Seidenberg and McClelland can account for the first of these but not the remaining 5. Because models with dual-route architectures can explain all 6 of these basic facts about reading, the authors suggest that this remains the viable architecture for any tenable model of skilled reading and learning to read. The dual-route cascaded model, a computational version of the dual-route model, is described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)589-608
Number of pages20
JournalPsychological Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1993

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