Molecularly Imprinted Polymer‐based detection of creatinine towards smart sensing

Sumedha N. Prabhu*, Subhas C. Mukhopadhyay, Chinthaka P. Gooneratne, Andrew S. Davidson, Guozhen Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Creatinine is a biological metabolic waste which constantly gets diffused in the human blood. It is excreted by the kidneys to reduce levels of blood toxicity thus maintaining homeostasis. In this research, a synthetic polymer for determining the creatinine levels has been developed using Molecularly Imprinted Polymerization (MIP) synthesis protocol. The polymer is highly specific towards selective adsorption of creatinine molecules. The developed MIP is capable of determining concentrations of creatinine up to 50 parts per million (ppm) which is three times higher than the normal range of creatinine concentration in the human blood. The functioning of the sensor is checked with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Although the purpose of this work is early diagnosis of creatinine rise and to monitor kidney health for avoiding further healthcare‐associated complications, the results are accessed up to 50 ppm. The MIP functionality is accessed up to 50 ppm to confirm that even if the developed sensing technology is used for a patient having higher creatinine concentrations, the MIP polymer has the potential to adsorb creatinine and display the results. After the successful development of MIP polymer, a LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network) based Point‐of‐Care (PoC) sensing device has been developed in this research and results are displayed. The portable device promotes early detection of kidney injury, which will help start the treatment early. The results obtained from the system will help doctors in taking necessary measures to avoid further kidney (renal) disorders including acute kidney failure and chronic kidney failure.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10133
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalMedical Devices and Sensors
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • creatinine
  • electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • molecularly imprinted polymerization
  • parts per million
  • point-of-care


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