Purpose: Many adults who stutter have elevated negative mood states like anxiety and depressive mood. Little is known about how mood states change over time. The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories or sub-types of mood states in adults who stutter over a 6 month period, and establish factors that contribute to these sub-types. Method: Participants included 129 adults who stutter who completed an assessment regimen at baseline, including a measure of mood states (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Three mood states were assessed (interpersonal sensitivity or IS, depressive mood and anxiety) once a month over 6 months. Latent class growth mixture modeling was used to establish trajectories of change in these mood states over time. Logistic regression was then used to determine factors assessed at baseline that contribute to the IS trajectories. Results: Three-class trajectory models were accepted as the best fit for IS, depressive mood and anxiety mood sub-types. Stable and normal mood state sub-types were found, incorporating around 60% of participants. Up to 40% belonged to sub-types comprising elevated levels of negative mood states. The logistic regression was conducted only with the IS domain, and revealed four factors that significantly contributed to IS mood sub-types. Those with low perceived control, low vitality, elevated social fears and being female were more likely to belong to elevated IS classes. Conclusions: This research revealed mood sub-types in adults who stutter, providing direction for the treatment of stuttering. Clarification of how much stuttering influences mood sub-types versus pre-existing mood is required.
- Latent growth curve modeling
- Perceived control
- Persistent developmental stuttering
- Social anxiety
- Trajectories of mood states