More on the language-as-fixed-effect fallacy

Monte Carlo estimates of error rates for F1,F2,F′, and min F′

K. I. Forster*, R. G. Dickinson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)


The properties of four different tests of the treatment effect in experiments using linguistic materials are examined using Monte Carlo procedures for estimating Type I error rates. It is shown that: (a) in extreme cases, the Type I error rates for F1 and F2 can exceed the desired rate by a factor of at least 10; (b) minF′ tends to be a very close estimate of F′; (c) both minF′ and F′ are very conservative tests when between item variance or subject-by-treatment variance is low; (d) requiring both F1 and F2 to be significant before H0 is rejected does not prevent the nominal Type I error rate from being exceeded; (e) most of these problems can be minimized by using multistage decision rules which select the most appropriate test on the basis of preliminary tests of item variance and subject-by-treatment variance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-142
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1976

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