Objective: to perform a comparative morphological study of biocompatibility, biodegradation, and tissue response to implantation of collagen matrices (scaffolds) for tissue engineering in urology and other areas of medicine. Material and methods. Nine matrix types, such as porous materials reconstructed from collagen solution; a collagen sponge-vicryl mesh composite; decellularized and freeze-dried bovine, equine, and fish dermis; small intestinal submucosa, decellularized bovine dura mater; and decellularized human femoral artery, were implanted subcutaneously in 225 rats. The tissues at the implantation site were investigated for a period of 5 to 90 days. Classical histology and nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) were applied. Results. The investigations showed no rejection of all the collagen materials. The period of matrix bioresorption varied from 10 days for collagen sponges to 2 months for decellularized and freeze-dried vessels and vicryl meshes. Collagen was prone to macrophage resorption and enzymatic lysis, being replaced by granulation tissue and then fibrous tissue, followed by its involution. NLOM allowed the investigators to study the number, density, interposition, and spatial organization of collagen structures in the matrices and adjacent tissues, and their change over time during implantation. Conclusion. The performed investigation could recommend three matrices: hybrid collagen/vicryl composite; decellularized bovine dermis; and decellularized porcine small intestinal submucosa, which are most adequate for tissue engineering in urology. These and other collagen matrices may be used in different areas of regenerative medicine.