Multiobjective particle swarm optimization to design a time-delay equalizer metasurface for an electromagnetic band-gap resonator antenna

Ali Lalbakhsh*, Muhammad U. Afzal, Karu P. Esselle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)


This letter presents an efficient particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm developed to design a near-field time-delay equalizer metasurface (TDEM) for the purpose of improving directivity and radiation patterns of classical electromagnetic band-gap resonator antennas. Triple layers of conductive printed patterns in the metasurface were optimized by the PSO algorithm to systematically design the TDEM. Predicted and measured results show a significant improvement in antenna performance including 9.6 dB enhancement in antenna directivity, lower sidelobes, and higher gain. The measured directivity of the prototype is 21 dBi, and 3-dB bandwidth is 11.8%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)912-915
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2017



  • Electromagnetic band-gap (EBG)
  • electromagnetic band-gap resonator antenna (ERA)
  • Fabry-Perot resonator antenna (FPRA)
  • high gain
  • near-field phase transformation
  • particle swarm optimization (PSO)
  • propagation time
  • time-delay equalizer metasurface (TDEM)

Cite this