Multiple sources for the origin of granites

Geochemical and Nd/Sr isotopic evidence from the Gudaoling granite and its mafic enclaves, northeast China

Jin Hui Yang*, Fu Yuan Wu, Sun Lin Chung, Simon A. Wilde, Mei Fei Chu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

163 Citations (Scopus)


Geochemical and Sr- and Nd-isotopic data have been determined for mafic to intermediate microgranular enclaves and host granitoids from the Early Cretaceous Gudaoling batholith in the Liaodong Peninsula, NE China. The rocks include monzogranite, porphyric granodiorite and quartz diorite. Monzogranites have relatively high 87 Rb/86Sr ratios (0.672-0.853), low initial 87Sr /86Sr ratios (0.7052-0.7086) and εNd(t) values (-18.5 to -20.9) indicating that they were mainly derived from a newly underplated crustal source with a short crustal residence time. Quartz diorites have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7118-0.7120) and negative εNd(t) values (-13.2 to -18.1) coupled with high Al2O3 and MgO contents, indicating they were derived from enriched lithospheric mantle with contributions of radiogenic Sr from plagioclase-rich metagreywackes or meta-igneous rocks, i.e., ancient lower crust. Two groups of enclaves with igneous textures and abundant acicular apatites are distinguished: dioritic enclaves and biotite monzonitic enclaves. Dioritic enclaves have low Al2O3 (13.5-16.4 wt%) and high MgO (Mg# = ∼72.3) concentrations, low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058-0.7073) and negative εNd(t) values (∼-7.2), and are enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in HFSEs, suggesting they were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle source. Biotite monzonitic enclaves have Sr and Nd isotopic compositions similar to the monzogranites, indicating they were crystal cumulates of the parental magmas of these monzogranites. Granodiorites have transitional geochemistry and Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions, intermediate between the monzogranites, quartz diorites and the enclaves. Geochemical and Sr- and Nd-isotopic compositions rule-out simple crystal-liquid fractionation or restite unmixing as the major genetic link between enclaves and host rocks. Instead, magma mixing of mafic mantle-derived and juvenile crustal-derived magmas, coupled with crystal fractionation and assimilation of ancient lower crust, is compatible with the data. This example shows that at least some calc-alkaline granitoids are not produced by pure intracrustal melting, but formed through a complex, multi-stage hybridization process, involving mantle- and crustal-derived magmas and several concomitant magmatic processes (crystal fractionation, crustal assimilation and crustal anatexis).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4469-4483
Number of pages15
JournalGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • China
  • Mafic microgranular enclave
  • Magma mixing
  • Origin for granites
  • Sr-Nd isotopes

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