Muscle-inspired MXene conductive hydrogels with anisotropy and low-temperature tolerance for wearable flexible sensors and arrays

Yubin Feng, Hou Liu, Weihang Zhu, Lin Guan, Xinting Yang, Andrei V. Zvyagin, Yue Zhao*, Chun Shen, Bai Yang, Quan Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Conductive hydrogels as flexible electronic devices, not only have unique attractions but also meet the basic need of mechanical flexibility and intelligent sensing. How to endow anisotropy and a wide application temperature range for traditional homogeneous conductive hydrogels and flexible sensors is still a challenge. Herein, a directional freezing method is used to prepare anisotropic MXene conductive hydrogels that are inspired by ordered structures of muscles. Due to the anisotropy of MXene conductive hydrogels, the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity are enhanced in specific directions. The hydrogels have a wide temperature resistance range of −36 to 25 °C through solvent substitution. Thus, the muscle-inspired MXene conductive hydrogels with anisotropy and low-temperature resistance can be used as wearable flexible sensors. The sensing signals are further displayed on the mobile phone as images through wireless technology, and images will change with the collected signals to achieve motion detection. Multiple flexible sensors are also assembled into a 3D sensor array for detecting the magnitude and spatial distribution of forces or strains. The MXene conductive hydrogels with ordered orientation and anisotropy are promising for flexible sensors, which have broad application prospects in human–machine interface compatibility and medical monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grants 51861145311 and 51373061), Interdisciplinary innovation project of the first hospital of Jilin University (JDYYJCHX2020005) and the Achievement Transformation Project of the First Hospital of Jilin University, JDYYZH‐2102048 and 2102050.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • anisotropy
  • conductive hydrogels
  • flexible sensor
  • low-temperature tolerance
  • muscle-inspired
  • MXene


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