Naming speed and reading: From prediction to instruction

John R. Kirby, George K. Georgiou, Rhonda Martinussen, Rauno Parrila, Patricia Bowers, Karin Landerl

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    253 Citations (Scopus)


    Current theoretical interpretations of naming speed and the research literature on its relation to reading are reviewed in this article. The authors examine naming speeds effects across languages and the shape of its relationship to reading. Also considered is the double-deficit hypothesis, by which students with both slow naming speed and low phonological awareness are hypothesized to be most at-risk for reading disability. Finally, the instructional literature regarding attempts to improve naming speed and use of naming speed as a predictor of response to intervention is reviewed. The authors conclude that naming speed is uniquely associated with a range of reading tasks across orthographies, and that early identification would be improved by the inclusion of naming speed measures. The poor response to instruction of students who have slow naming speed should be considered when designing interventions. Further work is required to specify the theoretical nature of naming speed and to determine how to help students with slow naming speed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)341-362
    Number of pages22
    JournalReading Research Quarterly
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


    • Article
    • Assessment
    • Childhood
    • Comprehension
    • Decoding
    • Fluency
    • Phonics
    • Special needs
    • Struggling
    • Theoretical


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