Processing by high-pressure torsion at room temperature was employed to achieve a uniform nanostructure in a metastable Ti67.4Nb 24.6Zr5Sn3 bcc β alloy with grains of ∼20-60 nm after five turns. By comparison, there was an ultrafine grain structure after equal-channel angular pressing at 903 K. The majority of refined grains were identified as bcc β-titanium with the presence of a small fraction of orthorhombic α″ martensite. It is proposed that the pronounced grain refinement is facilitated by a stress-/straininduced β → α″ martensitic transformation. However, the presence of a large fraction of β phase in the high-pressure torsion processed samples is attributed to a reverse α″ -→ β martensitic transformation stimulated by the applied shear stress and the inhibition effect of the nanoscale grains on martensite formation.
- Beta-titanium alloys
- Equal-channel angular pressing
- High-pressure torsion
- Martensitic transformation
- Ultrafine/nanoscale microstructure