Effective cancer treatment remains a significant challenge in human healthcare. Although many different types of cancer therapy have been tested, scientists have now concluded that combinations of drugs, or drugs plus gene therapy, can target multiple pathways to fight cancer. Nanovehicles can increase drug uptake inside tumor cells, improve biodistribution and accumulation at tumor sites. The ability to deliver two or more anticancer drugs, genes, among others, at the same time and place will increase therapeutic effects while decreasing side effects and reducing the risk of multidrug resistance. This review discusses the advantages of nano-based co-delivery methods in cancer therapy, summarizes the common types of nanovehicles and their preparation methods, and covers some recent co-delivery studies in detail.