Naxal insurgency in India

genesis, ideological precepts and security challenges

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


With its genesis during the colonial times, Naxal insurgency continued in independent India because of the existing grievances of the indigenous people living largely in the forest areas. Notwithstanding this history, initiation of several welfare measures by the successive governments, in the wake of liberalization of the economy in India, insurgency reinvigorated itself in 2004 under the Maoists ideological fold. By 2009, it turned almost one-third of India into a red-corridor and posed the biggest-ever internal security threat faced by India. However, the initiation of the multi-causal counter-insurgency approach by the Bhartiya Janata Party government led to capping the insurgency. This chapter highlights the genesis of the Naxal insurgency, theoretical perspectives to understand it, and analyse different phases of its development and expansion. An effort is also made to assess and underline the governments’ counter- insurgency approaches during different phases and the transnational paraphernalia established by the Naxals.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTerrorism, security and development in South Asia
Subtitle of host publicationnational, regional and global implications
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherRoutledge, Taylor and Francis Group
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Mar 2021

Publication series



  • Insurgency
  • Policy and legislation
  • Naxalism
  • Security

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