This chapter explores the antecedents of the Naxal movement, the blending of grievances into Maoist ideology, the nature of security challenges posed, and the government response to contain the insurgency. It delineates a theoretical framework as well as international links that aided the insurgency. The chapter analyzes the efficacy of the government’s policies, the changing tactics of the Naxals, and the evolving trends in the Naxal insurgency. The Naxal insurgency started during the colonial period and was ignored during the post-independence formative years, but became a formidable force that spread to almost one-third of India during its peak in 2009-2010. The adivasi grievances, ongoing from the colonial and post-independence period, got sparked in 1967 with the killing of a landless peasant by zamindars in the Naxalbari village in West Bengal, hence termed as “Naxal”. The adivasis began to reap fruits under the new circumstances, thanks to constitutional amendments, employment opportunities, and other development and welfare policies.