The role of substance P (SP) and its receptor, the neurokinin-1 (NK1R), in the generation of respiratory rhythm has received considerable attention, particularly at the Pre-Bötzinger Complex of the ventral respiratory group (VRG). However, the functional role of SP and NK1R in other VRG regions has not been explored in detail. We review the current literature and describe recent data demonstrating that selective activation of NK1R in the Bötzinger Complex (BötC) of the VRG evoked bradypnea by lengthening expiratory period. In addition, endogenous activation of NK1R in the BötC participates in the expiratory lengthening effect of the Hering-Breuer reflex. These data suggest that NK1R expressing neurons in different subregions of the VRG have functionally diverse roles and provide new insight on the modulatory role of SP on respiratory reflexes.