A heard speech sound which is not the same as the synchronized seen speech sound can sometimes give rise to an illusory phonological percept. Typically, a heard /ba/ combines with a seen /ga/ to give the impression that /da/ has been heard (MCGURK, H. and MACDONALD, J. Nature Lond. 264, 746-748, 1976). We report the susceptibility to this illusion of four individuals with localized brain lesions affecting perceptual function. We compare their performance to that of ten control subjects and relate these findings to the efficiency of processinf seen and heard speech in separate and combined modalities. The pattern of performance strongly suggests LH specialization for the phonological integration of seen and heard speech. The putative site of such integration can be effectively isolated from unilateral and from bilateral inputs and may be driven by either modality.