The predictive coding account of psychosis postulates the abnormal formation of prior beliefs in schizophrenia, resulting in psychotic symptoms. One domain in which priors play a crucial role is visual perception. For instance, our perception of brightness, line length, and motion direction are not merely based on a veridical extraction of sensory input but are also determined by expectation (or prior) of the stimulus. Formation of such priors is thought to be governed by the statistical regularities within natural scenes. Recently, the use of such priors has been attributed to a specific set of well-documented visual illusions, supporting the idea that perception is biased toward what is statistically more probable within the environment. The Predictive Coding account of psychosis proposes that patients form abnormal representations of statistical regularities in natural scenes, leading to altered perceptual experiences. Here we use classical vision experiments involving a specific set of visual illusions to directly test this hypothesis. We find that perceptual judgments for both patients and control participants are biased in accordance with reported probability distributions of natural scenes. Thus, despite there being a suggested link between visual abnormalities and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, our results provide no support for the notion that altered formation of priors is a general feature of the disorder. These data call for a refinement in the predictions of quantitative models of psychosis.
- predictive coding
- natural scene statistics