Novel immune biomarkers in complex regional pain syndrome

Marc A. Russo, Peter Georgius, Ananda Staats Pires, Benjamin Heng, Michael Allwright, Boris Guennewig, Danielle M. Santarelli, Dominic Bailey, Nathan T. Fiore, Vanessa X. Tan, Alexandra Latini, Gilles J. Guillemin, Paul J. Austin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We investigated serum levels of 29 cytokines and immune-activated kynurenine and tetrahydrobiopterin pathway metabolites in 15 complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) subjects and 14 healthy controls. Significant reductions in interleukin-37 and tryptophan were found in CRPS subjects, along with positive correlations between kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and TNF-α levels with kinesiophobia, tetrahydrobiopterin levels with McGill pain score, sRAGE, and xanthurenic acid and neopterin levels with depression, anxiety and stress scores. Using machine learning, we identified a set of binary variables, including IL-37 and GM-CSF, capable of distinguishing controls from established CRPS subjects. These results suggest possible involvement of various inflammatory markers in CRPS pathogenesis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number577330
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2020


  • Complex regional pain syndrome
  • Cytokine
  • Tryptophan
  • Kynurenine
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin
  • Inflammation
  • Cytokines

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