Novel multi-stage aluminium production: part 1 – thermodynamic assessment of carbosulphidation of Al2O3/bauxite using H2S and sodiothermic reduction of Al2S3

M. A. Rhamdhani*, N. Huda, A. Khaliq, G. A. Brooks, B. J. Monaghan, D. A. Sheppard, L. Prentice

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


A novel multi-stage Al production through a carbosulphidation of Al2O3, followed by a sodiothermic reduction of Al2S3, was proposed. In Stage-1, alumina (or bauxite) is reduced to Al2S3 in the presence of carbon and H2S. In Stage-2, Al2S3 is reduced to Al through reactions with Na or NaH. The thermodynamic analysis predicted Al2S3 to be the main intermediate Al-compound when H2S is reacted with Al2S3 and C at 1000-2000°C at 1 atm. Al2S3 formation was predicted to be low at 1100-1300°C at 1 atm (0.1 moles/mole Al2O3) but increased with increasing temperature (0.96 moles/mole Al2O3 at 1800°C). The thermodynamic analysis of sodiothermic reduction predicted that Al metal can be extracted from Al2S3 below 800°C at 1 atm. The Na2S produced can be hydrolysed to form H2S and NaOH. H2S can be re-used and the Na can be reproduced from NaOH and put back into the process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-102
Number of pages12
JournalMineral processing and extractive metallurgy: transactions of the institutions of mining and metallurgy
Issue number2
Early online date22 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2018


  • carbosulphidation of alumina
  • indirect carbothermal reduction
  • thermodynamic modelling
  • carbosulphidation of bauxite
  • aluminium sulphide production
  • Al₂O₃
  • sodiothermic reduction of Al₂O₃

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