Aims: To define the temporal characteristics of atrial lesion growth (lesion surface area), local electrogram amplitude attenuation, and circuit impedance decrement during in vivo radiofrequency (RF) ablation with direct endocardial visualization (DEV).
Methods and Results: A direct endocardial visualization catheter was used for real-time endoscopic visualization of atrial endocardial surface during RF ablation. Videos of lesion growth (surface area), circuit impedance, and local electrogram amplitude were recorded during ablation in 11 ovine. Fifty-two atrial ablations at 12 W, 14 W, and 16 W power for 30 seconds were analyzed. During 30-second RF ablation, the lesion matured (90% of final lesion dimension) in the first 23.0 ± 5.8 seconds. The local electrogram amplitude attenuation (80% decrement) and circuit impedance attenuation (20% decrement from initial) occurred 13.8 ± 8.2 seconds and 13.1 ± 7.9 seconds, respectively, before lesion maturity in a significant proportion of 30 second atrial ablations.
Conclusion: The DEV observations suggest that in smooth atrial surface ablations with significant local electrogram and impedance decrement in the first 10 seconds, further extension of ablation for 10-15 seconds could deliver optimal surface dimensions; however, real-time measurement of depth was not possible.
- ablation efficacy
- ablation safety ablation timing
- atrial ablation
- direct endocardial visualization
- impedance decrement
- local electrogram amplitude decrement
- radiofrequency ablation