We have presented our recent efforts on genotoxicity and intraocular biocompatibility of hydroxylated graphene (G-OH) prepared by ball milling. We have previously demonstrated that the as-synthesized G-OH could be considered as an excellent alternative for graphene oxide which had been applied widely. Following our last report on G-OH, we carried out detailed studies on genotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of G-OH in this work. Less than 5% enhanced caspase-3 level was observed for cells exposed to more than 50 μg/mL G-OH over 72 h, suggesting G-OH caused cell apoptosis was slight. The G-OH induced DNA damage was also found to be mild since expression of p53 and ROS regeneration level was quite low even at high concentration of G-OH over a long time. Cell viability was found to be higher than 90% with 50 μg/mL G-OH and 80% with 100 μg/mL G-OH using flow cytometry. Comet results suggested that less than 5% tail could be found with 100 μg/mL G-OH. TEM results confirmed that G-OH could penetrate into and out of the cytoplasm by means of endocytosis and exocytosis without causing damage on cell membranes. In vivo biocompatibility of G-OH was studied by intravitreal injection of G-OH into rabbits. The ocular fundus photography results showed that G-OH could be diffused in the vitreous body gradually without any damage caused. Injection of G-OH had caused few damages on eyesight related functions such as intraocular pressure, electroretinogram and histological structures of the retina.
- Comet assay
- Electroretinography (ERG)
- Flow cytometry
- Hydroxyl-functionalized graphene (G-OH)
- Intraocular pressure (IOP)
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
- Western blot