This study investigated particle and gaseous emission factors from a large cargo vessel for her whole voyage including at berth, manoeuvring and cruising. Quantification of these factors assists in minimising the uncertainty in the current methods of exhaust gas emission factor estimation. Engine performance and emissions from the main marine engine were measured on-board while the ship was manoeuvring and cruising at sea. Emissions of an auxiliary engine working at 55% of maximum continuous rating (MCR) were measured when the ship was at actual harbour stopovers. Gaseous and particle emission factors in this study are presented in g kWh −1 or # kWh −1, and compared with previous studies. Results showed that the SO 2 emission factor is higher than that of previous studies due to the high sulphur content of the fuel used. The particle number size distributions showed only one mode for different operating conditions of the ship, with a peak at around 40–50 nm, which was dominated by ultrafine particles. Emission factors of CO, HC, PM and PN observed during ship manoeuvring were much higher than that of those recorded at cruising condition. These findings highlight the importance of quantification and monitoring ship emissions in close proximity to port areas, as they can have the highest impact on population exposure.
- ship emissions
- particle number sized distributions