One session treatment for pediatric blood-injection-injury phobia: a controlled multiple baseline trial

Ella L. Oar*, Lara J. Farrell, Allison M. Waters, Elizabeth G. Conlon, Thomas H. Ollendick

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a modified One Session Treatment (OST), which included an e-therapy homework maintenance program over 4 weeks for Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia in children and adolescents. Using a single case, non-concurrent multiple-baseline design, 24 children and adolescents (8-18 years; 7 males, 17 females) with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia were randomly assigned to a one, two or three week baseline prior to receiving OST. Primary outcome measures included diagnostic severity, diagnostic status, and child and parent fear ratings. Secondary outcome measures included avoidance during behavioural avoidance tasks (BAT), global functioning and self and parent reported anxiety, fear and depression. Efficacy was assessed at post-treatment, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up. BII symptoms and diagnostic severity remained relatively stable during the baseline periods and then significantly improved following implementation of the intervention. Treatment response was supported by changes across multiple measures, including child, parent and independent clinician ratings. At post-treatment 8 of the 24 (33.33%) children were BII diagnosis free. Treatment gains improved at follow-ups with 14 (58.33%) children diagnosis free at 1-month follow-up and 15 (62.5%) diagnosis free at 3-month follow-up. Preliminary findings support the effectiveness of a modified OST approach for BII phobic youth with treatment outcomes improving over follow-up intervals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-142
Number of pages12
JournalBehaviour Research and Therapy
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Blood phobia
  • Injection phobia
  • BII
  • Children
  • Intensive treatment


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