One size does not fit all: monitoring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in marsupials

Kerry V. Fanson*, Emily C. Best, Ashley Bunce, Benjamin G. Fanson, Lindsay A. Hogan, Tamara Keeley, Edward J. Narayan, Rupert Palme, Marissa L. Parrott, Trudy M. Sharp, Kim Skogvold, Lisa Tuthill, Koa N. Webster, Meredith Bashaw

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    35 Citations (Scopus)


    Marsupial research, conservation, and management can benefit greatly from knowledge about glucocorticoid (GC) secretion patterns because GCs influence numerous aspects of physiology and play a crucial role in regulating an animal's response to stressors. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) offer a non-invasive tool for tracking changes in GCs over time. To date, there are relatively few validated assays for marsupials compared with other taxa, and those that have been published generally test only one assay. However, different assays can yield very different signals of adrenal activity. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of five different enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for monitoring adrenocortical activity via FGM in 13 marsupial species. We monitored FGM response to two types of events: biological stressors (e.g., transport, novel environment) and pharmacological stimulation (ACTH injection). For each individual animal and assay, FGM peaks were identified using the iterative baseline approach. Performance of the EIAs for each species was evaluated by determining (1) the percent of individuals with a detectable peak 0.125–4.5 days post-event, and (2) the biological sensitivity of the assay as measured by strength of the post-event response relative to baseline variability (Z-score). Assays were defined as successful if they detected a peak in at least 50% of the individuals and the mean species response had a Z⩾2. By this criterion, at least one assay was successful in 10 of the 13 species, but the best-performing assay varied among species, even those species that were closely related. Furthermore, the ability to confidently assess assay performance was influenced by the experimental protocols used. We discuss the implications of our findings for biological validation studies.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)146-156
    Number of pages11
    JournalGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017


    • adrenal
    • cortisol
    • corticosterone
    • enzyme immunoassay
    • non-invasive
    • validation
    • Validation
    • Non-invasive
    • Corticosterone
    • Cortisol
    • Adrenal
    • Enzyme immunoassay


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