Selection processes for medical schools need to be unbiased, valid, and psychometrically reliable, as well as evidence-based and transparent to all stakeholders. A range of academic and non-academic criteria are used for selection, including matriculation scores, aptitude tests and interviews. Research into selection is fraught with methodological difficulties; however, it shows positive benefits for structured selection processes. Pretest coaching and "faking good" are potential limitations of current selection procedures. • Developments in medical school selection include the use of personality tests, centralised selection centres and programs to increase participation by socially disadvantaged students.