Recently, the energy efficiency of a relay network has become a hot research topic in the wireless communication society. In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency of three basic bidirectional relay transmission schemes [i.e., the four time-slot (4TS), three time-slot (3TS), and two time-slot (2TS) schemes] from the angle of relay deployment. Since a realistic power consumption model is very important in analyzing energy efficiency, and a power amplifier (PA) consumes up to 70% of the total power, we consider a realistic nonideal PA model. The derived closed-form expressions for the optimal relay deployment and the simulation results reveal the following important conclusions. First, it is possible to achieve the optimal energy efficiency and enlarge the cell coverage simultaneously in bad channel conditions, but it may be very challenging in good channel conditions. Second, under asymmetric traffic conditions, particularly when the downlink rate is larger than the uplink rate, all the aforementioned three schemes have almost the same optimal relay deployment, but the 2TS scheme has the highest energy efficiency when the spectral efficiency is large. Third, the relay node should be deployed closer to the base station with the nonideal PA than that with the ideal PA, and the optimal energy efficiency with the nonideal PA is much higher than that with the ideal PA. Moreover, the impact of small-scale fading depends on the value of path loss. To overcome the small-scale fading, the relay network needs to consume more energy.
- Bidirectional relay transmissions
- energy efficiency
- network coding
- non-ideal power amplifier
- relay deployment