Optimization of micro and nano palm oil fuel ash to determine the carbonation resistance of the concrete in accelerated condition

Wei Le Tang, Han-Seung Lee, Vanissorn Vimonsatit, Trevor Htut, Jitendra Kumar Singh*, Wan Nur Firdaus Wan Hassan, Mohamed A. Ismail, Asiful H. Seikh, Nabeel Alharthi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


The carbonation rate of reinforced concrete is influenced by three parameters, namely temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in the surroundings. As knowledge of the service lifespan of reinforced concrete is crucial in terms of corrosion, the carbonation process is important to study, and high-performance durable reinforced concretes can be produced to prolong the effects of corrosion. To examine carbonation resistance, accelerated carbonation testing was conducted in accordance with the standards of BS 1881-210:2013. In this study, 10⁻30% of micro palm oil fuel ash (mPOFA) and 0.5⁻1.5% of nano-POFA (nPOFA) were incorporated into concrete mixtures to determine the optimum amount for achieving the highest carbonation resistance after 28 days water curing and accelerated CO₂ conditions up to 70 days of exposure. The effect of carbonation on concrete specimens with the inclusion of mPOFA and nPOFA was investigated. The carbonation depth was identified by phenolphthalein solution. The highest carbonation resistance of concrete was found after the inclusion of 10% mPOFA and 0.5% nPOFA, while the lowest carbonation resistance was found after the inclusion of 30% mPOFA and 1.5% nPOFA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • carbonation depth
  • concrete
  • microstructure
  • morphology
  • palm oil fuel ash
  • sorptivity


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