Optimization of multiple spin-echo sequences for 3D polymer gel dosimetry

Y. De Deene*, C. Baldock

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)


The overall performance of polymer gel dosimeters for three-dimensional radiation dosimetry is determined by the temporal and spatial stability of the gels, dose sensitivity and image quality with respect to both systematic and stochastic deviations. The dose resolution (DΔ p) is determined by the dose sensitivity and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the dose images. The dose sensitivity can be altered by changing the chemical composition of the polymer gel. The SNR is determined by the scanner and the imaging sequence. In the dose verification of conformal radiotherapy treatments the chosen number of slices may reach a number of 10-20. For these experiments, to obtain a sufficient SNR within a reasonable measurement time using a certain MR scanner, the imaging sequence should be optimized. A few other studies have emphasized the importance of optimizing the imaging sequence with respect to dose resolution (DΔ p) or SNR but do not give quantitative values for the optimal sequence parameters for scanning a polymer gel dosimeter in three dimensions. In this paper, it is proved that a multiple spin-echo sequence is preferable to a single spin-echo sequence. It is also shown that when using a multiple spin-echo sequence it is not the inter-echo time that should be optimized but the number of echoes. An algebraical expression is derived for the dose resolution in terms of sequence parameters. A mathematical formalism and look-up tables are provided that can be used to optimize both a single and a slice-selective multiple spin-echo sequence to acquire a set of dose images at various locations. The use of the optimization protocol is illustrated by some examples. The optimization protocol enables the user to derive the optimal sequence parameters to acquire a set of dose maps obtained by quantitative T2 imaging for each polymer gel dosimeter within the shortest time possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3117-3141
Number of pages25
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sept 2002
Externally publishedYes


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