Optimized laser-written ZBLAN fiber Bragg gratings with high reflectivity and low loss

Gayathri Bharathan, Toney Teddy Fernandez, Martin Ams, Robert I. Woodward, Darren D. Hudson, Alex Fuerbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

We report the direct femtosecond laser inscription of type-I fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) into the core of soft-glass ZBLAN fibers. We investigate and compare various fabrication methods such as single pass (line by line), double pass, and stacking (plane by plane) to create the highest reflectivity FBGs (99.98%) for mid-infrared (mid-IR) applications. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate how the parameters that influence the coupling coefficient, i.e., refractive index modulation and overlap factor, can be controlled in these gratings to specifically tailor the FBG properties. The performance of the direct-written type-I gratings after 6 h of annealing is further analyzed, and the reflectivity increases by approximately 10 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of temperature-stable mid-IR FBGs with highest coupling coefficient (464 m−1) and lowest loss (<0.5 dB∕cm) without the use of an expensive phase mask.

LanguageEnglish
Pages423-426
Number of pages4
JournalOptics Letters
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2019

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Bragg gratings
reflectance
fibers
coupling coefficients
lasers
gratings
glass fibers
masks
refractivity
modulation
fabrication
annealing
temperature

Cite this

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title = "Optimized laser-written ZBLAN fiber Bragg gratings with high reflectivity and low loss",
abstract = "We report the direct femtosecond laser inscription of type-I fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) into the core of soft-glass ZBLAN fibers. We investigate and compare various fabrication methods such as single pass (line by line), double pass, and stacking (plane by plane) to create the highest reflectivity FBGs (99.98{\%}) for mid-infrared (mid-IR) applications. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate how the parameters that influence the coupling coefficient, i.e., refractive index modulation and overlap factor, can be controlled in these gratings to specifically tailor the FBG properties. The performance of the direct-written type-I gratings after 6 h of annealing is further analyzed, and the reflectivity increases by approximately 10 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of temperature-stable mid-IR FBGs with highest coupling coefficient (464 m−1) and lowest loss (<0.5 dB∕cm) without the use of an expensive phase mask.",
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Optimized laser-written ZBLAN fiber Bragg gratings with high reflectivity and low loss. / Bharathan, Gayathri; Fernandez, Toney Teddy; Ams, Martin; Woodward, Robert I.; Hudson, Darren D.; Fuerbach, Alex.

In: Optics Letters, Vol. 44, No. 2, 15.01.2019, p. 423-426.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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AU - Bharathan, Gayathri

AU - Fernandez, Toney Teddy

AU - Ams, Martin

AU - Woodward, Robert I.

AU - Hudson, Darren D.

AU - Fuerbach, Alex

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AB - We report the direct femtosecond laser inscription of type-I fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) into the core of soft-glass ZBLAN fibers. We investigate and compare various fabrication methods such as single pass (line by line), double pass, and stacking (plane by plane) to create the highest reflectivity FBGs (99.98%) for mid-infrared (mid-IR) applications. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate how the parameters that influence the coupling coefficient, i.e., refractive index modulation and overlap factor, can be controlled in these gratings to specifically tailor the FBG properties. The performance of the direct-written type-I gratings after 6 h of annealing is further analyzed, and the reflectivity increases by approximately 10 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of temperature-stable mid-IR FBGs with highest coupling coefficient (464 m−1) and lowest loss (<0.5 dB∕cm) without the use of an expensive phase mask.

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