Pathology affecting the orbit and orbital apex is diverse and heterogeneous. Many of the differential pathologies require management in a multidisciplinary team involving both otolaryngology and ophthalmology. This article discusses the differential pathologies. Emphasis has been placed on Graves orbitopathy, traumatic optic neuropathy, and the indications for decompression in each. The differential diagnosis for a lesion within the orbit and orbital apex is diverse. The presentation, investigation, and appropriate management of these conditions is discussed with emphasis on traumatic optic neuropathy and Graves orbitopathy.