The F-rich Hongshan pluton in the eastern Nanling Range, southern China, is a topaz-bearing albite leucogranite. It is distinctive from other topaz-bearing felsic rocks in South China with respect to age, size, geochemical evolution and topaz mode and morphology. The Hongshan granites are highly peraluminous and characterized by high K2 O/Na2O, Si, Rb, Cs, Nb, Ta and F, and low Ca, Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, P, K/Rb, Zr/Hf and Eu/Eu*. The granites show significant trace-element variations with magma evolution, with increasing Rb, Cs, Nb, Ta, Sn, W and decreasing Sr, Ba, Zr, Hf, Y, REE, Pb, Th, K/Rb, Zr/Hf, Th/U and Eu/Eu*. These changes dominantly reflect fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite and accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The granites also exhibit a decrease in εNd(t = 225 Ma) from -7.9 to -11.7 with magma evolution. Modeling shows that the Nd isotopic variation could result from assimilation of the Taoxi Group wall rocks during fractional crystallization. The Hongshan pluton also shows spatial geochemical variations; the most evolved parts are located in the southeastern part of the pluton, which would be the most likely target area for rare-metal mineralization commonly associated with other topaz-bearing granites. Zircon grains from two rock types in the Hongshan body were analyzed in situ for U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic values. The concordant zircon grains mostly range from 218 to 230 Ma with an average of 224.6 ± 2.3 Ma (Indosinian). Some zircons with different internal structures and Hf isotope compositions, as well as monazite fragments, yield U-Pb ages of ca. 280 to 240 Ma, suggesting older thermal events in the studied area. The εHf(t) of these older zircons is strongly negative (-12.3), implying a crustal source with a Paleoproterozoic model age, similar to that for the Proterozoic Zhoutan Group. The main (∼225 Ma) zircon population exhibits less negative εHf(t) (-3.0 to -7.6) and Mesoproterozoic model ages, suggesting that the original magma of the Hongshan granite was generated from deeper Mesoproterozoic crust.