Oxygen isotope evidence for the formation of andesitic-dacitic magmas from the fast-spreading Pacific-Antarctic Rise by assimilation-fractional crystallisation

Sarah Freund*, Christoph Beier, Stefan Krumm, Karsten M. Haase

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Andesitic to dacitic lavas occur along a 300km long portion of the Pacific-Antarctic Rise close to the intersection of the spreading axis with the Foundation seamount chain. The fresh silicic glasses have low δ18O isotope values between 5.6‰ and 5.1‰ whereas basaltic glasses from the same ridge section have normal MORB δ18O values. Additionally, two FeTi basaltic and all silicic glasses have high Cl (up to 1.1wt.%) and K2O (up to 1.6wt.%) contents, indicating assimilation of hydrothermally altered material. Modelling suggests that the fractionating magma assimilated up to 30% of hydrothermally altered material after 57% fractional crystallisation of the basaltic magma in a melt lens at less than 2km depth. In contrast, the basaltic glasses show little assimilation and clinopyroxene-melt barometry indicates crystal fractionation in deeper melt sills. Relatively low H2O/Ce and Li/Ce ratios as well as the low δ18O values and high Cl and K concentrations in the silicic glasses suggest assimilation of altered crustal rock rather than a brine. While some of the variability in highly incompatible element ratios is best explained by crystal fractionation processes of FeTi-oxides (e.g., decreasing Nb/U) others require a reaction of the melt with residual amphibole and clinopyroxene (Cl/K, Tb/Yb, Hf/Sm, Ce/Yb). The initial onset of FeTi oxide crystallisation is associated with a reduced oxygen fugacity causing sulphide saturation and significant loss of S, Cu, and Co from the evolved melts. This change to more reducing melts as a result of oxide crystallisation is supported by the strong development of a negative Eu anomaly in the andesites and dacites indicating stronger partitioning of Eu into plagioclase. Reverse mineral zoning in the evolved lavas also indicates that replenishment by mafic melts occurs in the shallow melt lens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-283
Number of pages13
JournalChemical Geology
Volume347
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Assimilation-fractional crystallisation
  • FeTi basalt
  • Magma evolution
  • Mid-ocean ridge
  • Oxygen isotopes
  • Silica-rich lava

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