Parent preferences regarding stimulant therapies for ADHD: a comparison across six European countries

Beenish Nafees*, Juliana Setyawan, Andrew Lloyd, Shehzad Ali, Sarah Hearn, Rahul Sasane, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Paul Hodgkins

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The objective is to identify attributes of ADHD stimulant medications that influence treatment preferences of parents of children and adolescents with ADHD across six European countries, using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Different attributes (and associated levels) of stimulant therapies were identified through literature review and clinician input. Attributes included duration and degree of symptom control after each dose, frequency of medication dosing, potential for treatment to be abused, the side effects of vomiting, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbance. Attributes and levels were combined using an orthogonal design to produce a number of discrete hypothetical treatments. Parents were recruited via patient panels in different countries and asked to complete a survey. DCE data were analyzed using conditional logit models to explore the impact of each attribute on participants’ choices. Six hundred individuals (220 parents of adolescents and 380 parents of children) participated. All attributes were significant predictors of choice (p < 0.01). ‘Degree of symptom control’ was the most important attribute whereby the odds of choosing ‘very much improved symptoms’ compared with ‘minimally improved’ was 4.85 [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 4.28–5.49] for the adolescent group and 6.37 (95 % CI = 5.79–7.01) for the child group. Some inter-country differences emerged, e.g., achieving the best degree of symptom control was more important to parents in some countries than others. In conclusion, the study showed that duration and degree of symptom control were the most important aspects of treatment for parents in all countries. The findings revealed cultural differences in the relative importance of attributes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1189-1200
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • ADHD
  • Discrete choice experiment
  • Patient preference
  • Stimulant therapy


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